Rift Valley’s Fever – An Infectious Disease

Rift Valley’s Fever – An Infectious Disease

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever that typically infects domesticated animals. It is caused by a virus belonging to the Phlebovirus genus. Related viruses can infect humans.


Rift Valley’s fever (RVF) is an infectious disease caused by a Phlebovirus. It is an endemic virus that has a global impact on human and livestock health. In addition to affecting humans, RVF has economic implications due to the restriction on trade and import and export of livestock. The main strategy to reduce the incidence of RVF is immunization and vector control. The disease is an occupational hazard for livestock workers.

Symptoms of Rift Valley fever include fever between 40-41 degC, anorexia, depression, and diarrhea. Cattle and sheep suffer from a reduced milk yield and high abortion rates, which are common in affected animals. Humans and pigs are moderately susceptible, with a mortality rate of less than 10%. Dogs and cats are resistant to the disease.

The RVF virus is an arthropod-borne virus in the family Phleboviridae. It was first recognized in 1930-31 in the Rift Valley of Kenya, where outbreaks occur irregularly every three to fifteen years. In 1997-1998, a major outbreak of RVF occurred in northeast Kenya and southwest Somalia, causing extensive human mortality and disrupting livestock exports.


Rift Valley fever is an illness that is spread through mosquito bites and contact with infected animals. It is usually a transient illness, but in severe cases can lead to encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever, and death. The virus is carried by mosquitoes from Africa, Asia, and the Arabian Peninsula.

The virus that causes RIFT Valley fever is a member of the genus Phlebovirus and belongs to the Bunyaviridae family. It primarily infects domestic ruminants. It can result in large epizootics with high mortality, especially in young animals. It can also cause abortions in female animals. The disease was discovered in 1930 in East Africa and was first detected in human sera in southern Sudan.

The symptoms of RIFT Valley’s fever can range from flu-like illness to severe haemorrhagic fever. Fortunately, most occurrences are self-limiting and can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications. A hospital stay is recommended for more serious cases. In most cases, patients will recover in two to a week. A few extreme cases may require hospitalization, but treatment will be limited to supportive care.

The disease is primarily transmitted through mosquito bites and is found in sub-Saharan Africa. It can cause death in newborn ruminants and is associated with abortions. There is no cure for the illness, but there are vaccines available to prevent the virus from spreading.

The Rift Valley fever virus is a mosquito-transmitted RNA virus that affects humans, livestock, and wildlife. In 2010, an outbreak of the disease occurred in northern Mauritania, causing a significant number of clinical cases. Of these, twenty-one cases were lethal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outbreak and to determine how the virus spread in Mauritania after it was discovered. Serum samples from infected individuals were tested for viral RNA and for antibodies against the RVFV virus.


Rift Valley fever is a zoonotic mosquito-borne disease associated with recurring outbreaks of perinatal mortality, abortion, and acute febrile illness in livestock. The virus was first isolated in Kenya in 1931 and has spread across the African continent since then. The virus causes encephalitis, non-specific fever, and ocular syndrome. Transmission of the disease is facilitated by mosquitoes of several genera.

In recent years, several outbreaks of the disease have been reported in countries throughout the horn of Africa and Southern Africa. The most recent outbreaks were linked to unusual rainfall and sea temperatures associated with El Nino. These outbreaks occurred in southern African countries and islands in the Indian Ocean.

Heavy rains triggered the hatching of Aedes mosquitoes and Culex mosquitoes. These mosquitoes then fed on infected humans and livestock and transmitted the RVF virus. Infected livestock can be transmitted to humans and other animals by these mosquitoes.

The Aedes mosquito is the primary vector of the virus in these areas. It circulates throughout the year and increases in number during rainy seasons. Genetic analysis revealed genetic variation between the Aedes species in different regions. The Aedes mosquito species found in the RVF hotspot in northeastern Kenya is unique from the Aedes species found in the rest of sub-Saharan Africa. Its population is expanding rapidly.


Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease. It is spread by vertical and horizontal viral transmission among Aedes mosquitoes. Infected animals typically experience lethal hepatitis and high rates of spontaneous abortion. Humans can contract the disease through contact with bodily fluids of infected animals or through the bite of an infected mosquito.

Vaccination can prevent the disease and prevent further viral spread in endemic areas. The RVFV vaccine can be administered in single doses to prevent the spread of the virus in ruminants. Its protective epitopes are similar to those of the MP-12 vaccine and can act as a barrier to prevent the formation of pathogenic reassortant strains.

Prevention of Rift valley fever requires proper awareness of the disease and effective vaccination. The disease is transmitted through mosquito bites and is a significant source of economic loss for many countries. Vaccination is essential to protect humans and livestock from the virus. The disease is often fatal and can cause permanent damage to livestock.

Research on RVF shows that the disease generally peaks during the late rainy season and disappears with the first frost. In warmer climates, insect vectors are present year-round and outbreaks are likely to be smaller. The disease can be particularly dangerous for those in agriculture, slaughterhouses, and vets.

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